Menyoal Kembali Partikel Ta dalam Bahasa Jawa Kuno

Dwi Puspitorini


Old Javanese is known as a language that has a predicate clause pattern (V) preceding the subject (S). Usually, there is a particle ta or its variation between the predicate-subject sequences (V-ta-S). Besides the V-S pattern, the S-V pattern is also found. In this paper, it is shown that the clause pattern in Old Javanese is triggered by the importance of forming a narrative discourse. Particle ta and several other syntactic elements have a role in shaping narrative discourse. Other syntactic elements are the definition of nouns, arguments in the form of nouns (NP) or pronouns, and affective-passive verbs.The source of the data I use for this study is the Old Javanese parwa text, namely Adiparwa edited by Juynboll (1906). According to Molen (2010, 396), parwa is a literary product in itself. Parwa must be viewed as a literary work, just like kakawin. There is a clear story structure aided by lexical, grammatical, and literary structuring tools. In this study, the grammatical elements used for the purpose of building the story are shown.


Particle Ta; Parwa; Old Javanese Language

Full Text:



Hoff, Berend J. “Communicative Salience in Old Javanese”. Dalam Productivity and Creativity: Studies in General and Descriptive Linguistics in Honor of E.M. Uhlenbeck, Trends in Linguistics; Studies and Monographs 116. Diedit oleh Mark Janse and Ann Verlinden. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 1998.

Hunter, M. Thomas. Jr. “Participant Marking in Old Javanese”. Dalam Balinese Language: Historical Background and Contemporary State. Disertasi. The University of Michigan. 1988.

Hunter, M. Thomas. Jr. “Irrealis, aspect, and complementation in Old Javanese”. Wacana 19, no. 1 (2018): 1—35.

Juynboll, H.H. Ãdiparwa. Oud-Javaansch Prozageschrift. ‘s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff. 1906.

Mardiwarsito, L., & Kridalaksana, Harimurti. Struktur Bahasa Jawa Kuno. Ende, Flores: Nusa Indah. 1984.

Molen, Willem van der. “Dharmawangśa’s Heritage on The Appreciation of The Old Javanese Mahābhārata”. Wacana 12, no. 2 (2010): 386-398.

Molen, Willem van der. An introduction to Old Javanese. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. 2015.

Muslim, Mohamad Umar. Morphology, Transitivity, and Voice in Indonesian. Disertasi La Trobe University, Melbourne, 2003.

Ogloblin, A.K. “Old Javanese Verb Structure”. Dalam The Art and Culture of South- East Asia. Diedit oleh Lokesh Chandra. Aditya Prakashan, New Delhi, India. 1991.

Ogloblin, A.K. “Javanese”. Dalam The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar. Diedit oleh Alexander Adeelaar and Nikolaus P. Himmelmann. London, New York: Routledge Language Family Series. 2005.

Poedjosoedarmo, Gloria. “Changes in Word Order and Noun Phrase Marking from Old to Modern Javanese: Implications for Understanding Developments in Western Austronesian ‘Focus” Systems”. Dalam The History and Typology of Western Austronesia Voice Systems. Diedit oleh Fay Wouk dan Malcolm Ross. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. 2002.

Purwo, Bambang Kaswanti. “Strategi Pemilihan men- dan di- di dalam Wacana Bahasa Indonesia”. Linguistik Indonesia 4, no. 8 (1986).

Purwo, Bambang Kaswanti. “Voice in Indonesian: A Discourse Study”. Passives and Voice: Typological Studies in Language TSL 16 (1988): 195-243.

Purwo, Bambang Kaswanti, (ed.). Serpih-serpih Telaah Pasif Bahasa Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Kanisius. 1989.

Puspitorini, D. “Particles pwa and ta in the Old Javanese Language”. Dalam Cultural Dynamics in a Globalized World. Diedit oleh Melani Budianta, dkk. London and New York: Taylor & Francis. 2018.

Teselkin, A.S. Old Javanese (Kawi). Diterjemahkan oleh: John M. Echols. Itacha, New York: Modern Indonesia Project Southeast Asia Program of Cornell University. 1972.

Uhlenbeck, E.M. “Position and Syntactic function of the particle ta in Old Javanese”. Dalam Studies in General and Oriental Lingusitics presented to Shiro Hattori. Diedit oleh R. Jacobson and S. Kawamoto. Tokyo: TEK Corporation for Language and Educational Research. 1970.

Uhlenbeck, E.M. “The Concept of Proportionality: Old Javanese Morphology and the Structure of the Old Javanese Word kakawin”. Dalam Bahasa, Sastra, Budaya: Ratna Manikam Untaian Persembahan Kepada Prof. P. J. Zoetmulder, 66-82. Diedit oleh Sulastin Sutrisno, Darusuprapta, and Sudaryanto. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. 1985.

Uhlenbeck, E.M. “Clitic, suffix and particle; some indispensable distinctions in Old Javanese grammar”. In C.M.S. Hellwig et al. A man of Indonesian letters, essays in honour of Professor A. Teeuw. [Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 121], 334-341. Dordrecht, Holland/Cinnaminton, USA: Foris Publications. 1986.

Uhlenbeck, E.M. “Sentence Pattern in the Old Javanese of the Parwa Literature”. Dalam A World of Language: Papers Presented to Professor S.A Wurm on His 65th Birthday. Diedit oleh Donald C Laycock dan Werner Winter. Pacific Linguistics C-100. 1987.

Zoetmulder, P.J. De taal van het Adiparwa: een grammaticale studie van het Oudjavaans. Dordrecht: Foris Publications. 1950/1983.

Zoetmulder, P.J. Old Javanese-English Dictionary. ’s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, 1982. (versi daring ).

Zoetmulder, P.J. Kamus Jawa Kuna Indonesia. Jakarta: KITLV/Gramedia. 2006.

Zoetmulder, P.J. & Poedjawijatna, I.R. Bahasa Parwa I: Tatabahasa Jawa Kuna. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. 1992.

Zoetmulder, P.J. Bahasa Parwa II: Tatabahasa Jawa Kuna. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. 1993.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Jumantara: Jurnal Manuskrip Nusantara

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Pusat Jasa Informasi Perpustakaan dan Pengelolaan Naskah Nusantara
 - Perpustakaan Nasional RI
Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan, Nomor 11, Jakarta Pusat